Gram is an important bean like rabi crop. Due to its bean like nature it takes nitrogen from the air and adds it to the earth which retains the fertility of earth. In regard to its nutritious value, it is an important food and a substitute of meat.
Gram is cultivated on approximately 22 lac acre of land which constitutes almost 80% of total area of gram of our country. In Punjab, almost 92 percent of gram area is in arid regions which mostly include districts of Thal, Bhakkar, Khushab, Layyah, Mianwali, Jhang and Muzaffargarh. Economy of the arid regions of these districts mostly depend upon this crop. Grams are mostly cultivated in less rainy areas of arid regions where desi type is frequently cultivated. Kabuli gram requires more water than desi gram. The consumption of kabuli gram is increasing day by day and in order to meet its need, it is imported from different countries like Iran, Australia, Turkey and others. Keeping this in view, there is a need to increase the production of kabuli gram. A decrease in the production rate of gram has been noticed in previous years. The main reason behind this deficiency is unfavorable weather conditions. In order to increase the production rate of gram it is necessary to discover better type of gram along with the increase in the land area for gram. Moreover by cultivating already discovered desi and kabuli gram and using production technology can increase the growth rate up to a great level. Timely cultivated crop gives better results while late cultivation can lessen the growth. Early cultivation can also affect the production. It is necessary to take care of seed rate for gram production. Use 30 kg per acre pure and healthy seed for normal grains. While for coarse grains types of desi and kabuli gram, do not use less than 35 kg of seeds per acre. There should be 85,000 to 95,000 plants in one acre. If coarse grains are cultivated by grading seeds then the plants will grow healthy from the start and due to their good growth, there will be an increase in the production. Good quality seed can be obtained from Punjab Seed Corporation, Niab Faisalabad, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad, Arid Agricultural Research Institute Chakwal and Arid Zone Research Institute (AZRI) Bhakkar.
Suitable and effective pesticides should be used according to the opinion of staff of the Department of Agriculture.
Gram crop needs less nitrogenous fertilizers while more phosphorous fertilizers. Fertilizers should be used before seeding, at the time of land preparation.
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